ѧԡ1


ѧ٧ѧҧѧӧѧ ѧܧӧܧ ӧѧ, ާ ާ֧ߧ ӧ֧ԧ էާѧ֧ ֧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ӧڧէ. ѧ ֧ݧ C ߧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧ էѧا, ܧѧڧ ѧէ. ݧܧڧ ѧܧӧܧ ٧ӧݧ ڧާѧݧߧ ҧѧ٧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ѧߧߧ ֧, ٧ߧѧڧ, ާ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧էߧ ӧҧ ѧާ֧. ѧѧ֧ާ ڧ٧ӧէڧ ѧܧӧܧ ߧӧߧ ڧ ӧڧߧԧ . ֧ҧ֧ݧ֧ߧ ܧѧ C էߧ ڧ ߧѧէ, ٧ӧݧڧ ߧѧ ߧ ݧܧ ܧߧާڧ, ߧ ާ֧ߧѧ ߧ֧ԧѧڧӧߧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ܧاѧ ֧է.

ѧԡ2


ӧ֧, ܧާ ߧ֧ݧ٧ ڧܧӧѧ, C ҧ֧٧ѧߧ, ӧѧا֧ߧڧ ݧէ ӧ֧ ӧ٧ѧ ܧݧԧڧ. ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ѧܧ է ѧҧ ?ѧܧܧ ӧѧ, ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ ݧ. ֧է ? (The IKEA Way on Purchasing Products, Materials and Services; IWAY). ߧѧ է֧ܧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ߧ֧ ֧֧ڧݧ֧ߧ ާڧߧڧާѧݧߧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ, ܧ ާ ֧էӧݧ֧ ѧӧڧܧѧ, ѧܧا ڧѧߧ ߧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ҧ٧ѧ֧ݧӧ ֧֧ ߧڧާ. ֧է ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ է֧ܧ C ߧ֧էڧާ ܧݧѧѧڧ է֧ܧԧ ڧݧ ѧҧܧԧ է, ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧ ٧էӧ ݧӧڧ ߧ ѧҧڧ ާ֧ѧ, ҧݧէ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ߧ ٧ѧܧߧ, ܧݧ֧٧ߧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧާڧܧѧ ާߧԧ էԧ. էӧߧߧ֧ էߧڧ֧ӧ, ֧ڧѧݧڧ ѧ ѧҧѧ ߧ ֧էڧڧ ѧӧڧܧ, ڧ٧ӧѧ ڧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧާ ߧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧݧڧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ. ާާ֧ߧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ է֧ܧ IWAY 2000 ԧէ ާ ߧѧҧݧէѧ֧ ӧڧ ѧӧڧܧ ߧ֧֧ӧߧ ݧاڧ֧ݧߧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ C ֧ѧݧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ا ҧݧ֧ 100 000 ݧ֧ߧڧ.

ѧԡ3


ݧ ߧѧ ڧߧڧ ?֧ ާ֧ߧ, ֧ ݧ? ߧ֧էѧߧ . ߧѧѧݧ ٧ѧէާӧѧ ֧ߧ ӧѧ, ٧ѧ֧ ߧߧ ڧ ߧӧѧܧڧ ߧ֧ѧߧէѧߧ ֧֧ߧڧ, ٧ӧݧڧ ڧާѧݧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ, ֧֧ӧ٧ڧ ӧѧ ާѧܧڧާѧݧߧ ݧܧ ѧܧӧܧ ܧѧ ާاߧ ާ֧ߧ ӧ֧էڧ ܧاѧ֧ ֧է. ѧ ֧ڧ է֧ݧѧߧ ڧ ڧ ӧ ߧѧݧߧ֧ߧڧ֧. ڧާ֧ ԧ, ܧѧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ҧާ էڧ٧ѧۧߧ ާ ܧѧڧݧ ѧ , ڧݧ ֧֧ާ֧֧ߧڧ ѧߧڧӧܧ ӧѧ C ڧԧ ҧ֧֧ԧݧ ѧ է֧ߧԧ.

ѧԡ4


ߧ ڧ֧ާݧ֧ ѧӧܧ է֧ӧ֧ڧߧ ڧ ߧ֧ݧ֧ԧѧݧߧ ӧҧݧ֧ߧߧ ڧݧ է֧ӧӧ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧. ѧҧѧ֧ ӧڧާ ѧӧڧܧѧާ, ާԧѧ ڧ ݧ֧اڧӧѧ ڧߧڧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ٧֧ާԧ ڧާ . ݧӧڧ ӧݧ֧ ҧ٧ѧ֧ݧߧ էݧ ӧ֧ ѧӧڧܧ ާѧڧӧ է֧֧ӧ. ѧ էݧԧߧѧ ֧ݧ C ҧ֧֧ڧ ѧӧܧ ӧ֧ է֧ӧ֧ڧߧ էݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ӧѧ ڧ ݧ֧ߧ ٧ۧ ֧ڧڧܧѧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ֧ԧէߧߧڧ է֧ߧ ֧ڧڧܧѧڧ ֧ߧԧ ֧ڧ֧ݧܧԧ ӧ֧ (Forest Stewardship Council, FSC) ӧݧ֧ ֧էڧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ֧ާ, ӧ֧ѧ֧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ . ѧܧا ֧ ѧߧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ, ܧ ѧҧѧ ߧ֧֧էӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ާ֧ѧ. ߧ ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ ѧӧڧܧ ߧاߧ ڧߧާѧڧ֧ ݧ֧اڧӧѧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ӧݧ է ѧ ӧҧܧ ݧ֧.

ѧԡ5


֧ܧ ?֧֧էڧ ߧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާ ߧ֧ԧڧ? ܧߧ֧ߧ ڧԧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ݧߧ ֧֧ӧ ӧ֧ ٧էѧߧڧ, ڧߧѧէݧ֧اѧڧ , ߧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧէڧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ٧ ֧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާ ڧߧڧܧ ߧ֧ԧڧ. ާ ԧ, ާ ݧѧߧڧ֧ ӧڧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ߧѧ֧ԧ ҧ֧ԧ ߧ֧ԧ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ 25%. ا է֧ݧѧ֧ ֧: 47% ߧ֧ԧڧ ާ ݧѧ֧ ڧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާ ڧߧڧܧ, ֧ܧڧӧߧ ߧ֧ԧ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ا ӧ٧ݧ ߧ 14% ѧӧߧ֧ߧڧ 2005 ԧէ.

ѧԡ6


ڧѧ֧ ܧݧѧѧڧ է֧ܧԧ է ߧ֧էڧާ, ާ ѧܧڧӧߧ ҧ֧ ߧ֧. ѧӧڧܧ ڧ ҧէէڧܧ էݧاߧ ҧݧէѧ է֧ܧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ӧѧ է֧ܧԧ է: ?֧էӧѧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧѧѧڧ է֧ܧԧ է. ֧է ? (The IKEA Way on Preventing Child Labour). ҧ٧ӧѧ֧ ѧӧڧܧ է֧ۧӧӧѧ ާѧܧڧާѧݧߧ ֧ ڧߧ֧֧ ֧ҧ֧ߧܧ. ާڧާ ҧݧէ֧ߧڧ ߧ ܧߧݧ ֧٧ݧѧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ڧܧ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ӧڧڧ է֧ܧԧ է. ӧ٧ ڧ ԧ ڧѧݧߧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ӧܧݧѧէӧѧ֧ ֧էӧ ֧ܧ ߧէ ?ѧ֧ է֧֧?, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ٧ѧڧ ѧ ֧ҧ֧ߧܧ.

ѧԡ7


ѧѧݧ ѧ ֧ӧ ާڧ ܧߧ ӧ֧ߧ ڧ٧էѧߧڧ֧, ܧ ֧ѧѧ֧ ߧ ҧާѧԧ, ѧҧݧߧ ߧ է֧اѧ֧ ݧ. ֧ԧէߧߧڧ է֧ߧ ҧ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ ҧާѧԧ ߧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ ӧ֧էߧ ӧ֧֧ӧ C ݧ֧ާ֧ߧѧߧ ݧ. ާ ާ ڧݧ٧֧ էӧ ӧڧէ ҧާѧԧ C ҧ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ TCF (Totally Chlorine Free, ѧҧݧߧ ҧ֧ ݧ) ڧݧ ECF (Elementary Chlorine Free, ҧ֧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧѧߧԧ ݧ).

ѧ ֧ݧ C ӧާ֧ߧ ڧԧѧڧާ ѧӧڧܧѧާ ҧާѧԧ էҧڧ, ҧ ӧ էݧ ֧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ѧӧݧݧ ڧ ݧ֧ ֧ڧڧܧѧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. 2008 ԧէ 74% է֧ӧ֧ߧԧ ӧݧܧߧ ҧݧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧ ڧ ֧ڧڧڧӧѧߧߧ ݧ֧. ֧֧ݧ ߧ ҧݧ֧ ܧާѧܧߧ ާѧ ܧѧѧݧԧ, ҧ ާ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ާ ѧߧڧӧ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧާѧԧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ݧڧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ӧҧ CO2, ڧէڧ ߧ ܧѧاէ ܧ٧֧ާݧ.

ѧԡ8


ا֧ԧէߧ ֧ѧߧѧ ֧է ާڧݧݧڧߧ ݧէ֧. էѧا ٧է֧ ާ ߧ ٧ѧҧӧѧ֧ ܧاѧ֧ ֧է: ӧ ӧ֧ ֧ѧߧѧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ܧѧۧߧ֧ ާ֧ էߧ ҧݧէ ڧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧߧԧ֧էڧ֧ߧ, 15% ӧ֧ ӧѧ, ܧ էѧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ӧ֧էܧڧ էܧ, ڧާ֧ ާѧܧڧӧܧ certified organic, . . ѧܧا ڧ٧ߧѧߧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧڧާ.

ѧاէѧ ѧߧ ާا֧ էҧѧӧڧ ѧڧާ֧ߧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧڧ էܧ ӧ ߧѧڧާ֧ߧӧѧߧڧ. ѧڧާ֧, ѧݧڧ ҧݧէѧ ֧ѧߧ ڧݧ٧֧ ܧݧ 70 ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧߧԧ֧էڧ֧ߧ, ڧ ܧ ݧѧ ӧܧߧ֧ۧڧ ҧݧէ.

ѧԡ9


ݧ ڧ ާѧڧӧ ҧ֧֧٧ C ֧ܧѧߧ ڧާ֧ ԧ, ܧѧ ѧѧ֧ ݧѧ ާѧܧڧާѧݧߧ ݧ٧ ܧѧاէԧ ҧݧ֧ߧߧԧ է֧֧ӧ. ӧѧ ֧ڧ ӧڧݧڧ էѧا 1998 ԧէ ѧݧ ӧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ܧڧ֧. ֧ ߧڧܧާ ߧ ڧէڧݧ ԧݧӧ ڧ ܧӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ ѧ ӧݧ ҧ֧֧٧ ا է֧ݧѧ ާ֧ҧ֧ݧ, ߧ ѧӧݧ ֧ ܧ ڧݧ ڧ٧ާ֧ݧѧ էݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ .

ѧԡ10


1999 ԧէ էݧ ܧާѧߧڧ ҧݧ ӧ֧ߧ ܧӧէӧ ?ѧҧ էѧާ? (Waste Management Manual). ߧ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧ, ӧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ҧ٧ѧߧ ڧӧѧ ާ ާڧߧڧާ ߧ ߧӧߧ ԧ. ѧܧڧܧ ѧܧ է ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ ڧӧܧ 75% ӧ֧ է ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ѧӧܧ ҧݧ֧ 80% ڧӧѧߧߧԧ ާ ߧ ڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ڧݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ߧ֧ԧڧ.

ѧԡ11


1997 ԧէ էߧڧ֧ӧ էԧڧާ ڧ٧ӧէڧ֧ݧާ ާ֧ҧ֧ݧ է֧ӧ֧ߧ-ا֧ߧ ݧڧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧݧ ߧӧ ӧڧ , ֧ڧѧݧߧ ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ާ֧ҧ֧ݧ. ݧѧԧէѧ ާ ߧӧѧܧާ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧڧݧ ߧ 85 816 ߧ. ا֧ԧէߧ ٧ ֧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ԧ٧ էݧ ѧߧڧӧܧ ӧѧ ֧ҧ֧ ߧ 2800 ܧߧ֧ۧߧ֧ ާ֧ߧ. ާ ا ҧݧ֧ԧѧ֧ ֧֧ާ֧֧ߧڧ ڧҧ֧֧ߧߧ ӧѧ ܧѧ֧ݧާ, ߧڧاѧ֧ ѧէ, ݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧߧ, ֧ߧ.

ѧԡ12


ڧ٧ӧէӧ ܧѧߧ֧ էݧ ڧӧ է֧ է֧ ާ ߧ ڧݧ٧֧ ڧ֧ܧڧ ҧ֧ݧڧӧѧ֧ݧ. ֧ݧߧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اߧ ߧ էݧاߧ է֧اѧ ѧߧ ڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ӧ֧֧, ާ ާ ӧ֧ԧէ ֧ާڧާ ӧ֧ ާڧߧڧާާ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧާڧܧѧ. ӧ٧ާاߧ ާ ҧݧէѧ֧ ѧާ ԧڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧ ڧ է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ѧ, ԧէ ӧ֧է֧ ԧӧݧ.

ѧԡ13


ڧӧѧ C էڧ ڧ ѧާ ݧߧ էѧӧߧ էѧڧ ӧѧ . էߧѧܧ ا էڧ ڧ ѧާ ԧާ٧էܧڧ, ٧ߧѧڧ, ֧ԧ ѧߧڧӧܧ էߧ ҧݧ է֧ݧѧ ܧݧԧڧߧ ֧ߧѧҧ֧ݧߧ. ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ݧ֧ ߧѧ٧ѧ ѧ ѧ٧ҧߧ C ڧߧܧ էݧܧߧڧܧ ֧֧ ӧѧӧݧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ѧ٧ ڧէ֧ߧ. ӧ٧ ڧ ߧ ܧѧاէ ѧݧ֧ ѧݧ ާ֧ѧ էӧ ѧ٧ ҧݧ էڧӧѧߧ, ֧٧ܧ ܧѧڧݧ ѧէ, ڧݧ ֧֧ӧ٧ ҧ֧ާ ӧҧ էڧܧڧէ ԧݧ֧է.

ѧԡ14


ڧ٧ӧѧ֧ ӧڧ ܧѧ֧ݧ֧ ߧ ݧ٧ӧѧ ݧڧߧާ ѧӧާҧڧݧާ: ߧ֧ܧ ѧߧѧ է ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ҧݧڧ٧ݧ֧اѧڧ ѧۧߧ ܧڧ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ ѧӧҧ. է֧ݧߧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ӧ֧ۧѧڧ ܧѧ֧ݧ, ڧ֧٧اѧڧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧ, ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ܧڧէܧ ߧ էѧӧܧ ӧѧ.

֧ݧڧܧҧڧѧߧڧ էߧڧܧ, ܧ ֧٧է ߧ ѧҧ ߧ ߧ ѧӧާҧڧݧ, ާԧ ӧݧ٧ӧѧ ҧ֧֧ߧߧ ܧ֧էڧ ܧڧէܧ 15%. ާѧ 2007 ԧէ ѧߧѧէ ӧߧ֧էڧݧ ԧѧާާ, ܧ ܧѧ֧ݧ ߧ ާѧڧߧ ԧڧҧڧէߧ ڧݧ ݧڧӧҧ֧֧ԧѧڧ էӧڧԧѧ֧ݧ֧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ էҧߧ ާ֧ ߧ ѧܧӧܧ. ߧԧڧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ѧԧѧߧէڧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧է ܧѧ ?٧֧ݧ֧ߧ? ӧڧ ѧߧ. ݧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ڧҧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧާ֧ߧ էݧ ֧ާߧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧է, ѧܧا ܧѧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧էߧ է. ѧߧڧ էѧ֧ ѧ֧ߧէ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧է ڧ֧ ߧ 45 ܧ ԧ٧.

ѧԡ15


ڧէڧӧѧߧߧ ݧڧ C էڧ ڧ ֧ӧ ӧѧ , ֧էѧӧݧڧ ҧ ߧ ڧߧا֧ߧ֧ߧ ܧߧܧڧ ߧ ߧӧ է֧֧ӧ. ܧѧܧѧ ӧ ߧѧݧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧ ֧֧ѧҧѧߧߧ ҧާѧԧ. ݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ݧ ֧ҧ֧ ާڧߧڧާ . ѧܧѧ ܧߧܧڧ ݧ֧ԧ, ٧ߧѧڧ, ݧ ֧֧ާ֧ѧ ܧѧ էߧڧܧѧ ѧߧڧӧܧ, ѧ ܧѧ֧ݧ ֧ էѧӧܧ ܧݧѧѧڧ.

ѧԡ16


֧ҧ֧ݧ ֧ڧ C ܧߧܧڧ, اѧ ߧ ڧ ӧ ߧѧݧߧ֧ߧڧ֧, ݧܧ ٧է֧ ӧާ֧ ֧֧ԧݧߧ ѧާ ާ֧اէ էӧާ ݧާ ѧ٧ާ֧ 250 ߧ 500 ܧݧѧէ էݧڧߧߧ ٧ܧڧ ݧѧڧߧ ڧ ڧݧ , ާ֧اܧ C ܧѧ ݧѧ C ٧ѧݧߧ ֧֧ѧҧѧߧߧ ҧާѧԧ. ѧ֧ ڧ ѧ٧֧٧ѧ է ߧاߧ ѧ٧ާ֧, ݧ ֧ԧ ܧӧѧ ݧѧܧ ڧݧ ߧ.

ѧԡ17


֧ڧѧݧߧ ԧ٧ߧ ݧѧާ, ٧ѧѧ֧ߧӧѧߧߧ , ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ ާߧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧ ҧߧ է֧֧ӧߧߧ ѧݧ֧ѧ. ߧڧ ڧݧ٧ ԧڧҧܧڧ ڧߧ, ާ ܧߧѧ֧ݧߧ ѧ٧ާ֧ ԧ٧ӧ ֧էڧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ ѧ٧ާ֧ѧާ ӧѧ, ߧ֧ӧ٧ާاߧ ا֧ܧ ѧݧ֧. ڧߧ ڧ٧ԧѧӧݧڧӧѧ ڧ ݧڧڧݧ֧ߧ, ܧ էڧ ҧ֧ܧߧ֧ߧ ڧܧ ӧߧԧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ѧ٧ާ֧ ާ ѧܧ ԧ٧ӧ ֧էڧߧڧ ާԧ էԧߧ ѧѧާ֧ ܧߧ֧ۧߧ֧. ԧ٧ߧ ݧѧާ ݧ֧ԧܧ ֧֧ާ֧ѧ ާ ӧڧݧߧԧ ѧӧԧ٧ڧܧ. ѧާ ݧѧާ ӧ֧ڧ ߧ֧ާߧԧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ٧ѧԧاѧ ߧ ߧ֧ ߧ էӧ ߧߧ ӧѧ ҧݧ, ֧ ߧ ҧߧ ѧݧ֧.

ѧԡ18


ݧ, ڧ ܧԧ ڧ٧ԧѧӧݧڧӧѧ֧ ֧ݧߧ ҧ֧ݧ , ӧѧڧӧѧ ҧ ܧݧԧڧߧ ҧ: ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ާ֧ߧ֧ԧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ӧէ, ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ էҧ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧڧէ. ާ ԧ, ڧ٧ӧէӧ ܧѧߧ ڧݧ٧֧ ߧ 15% ާ֧ߧ , ֧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ֧ ѧߧѧݧԧ. ڧ٧ԧѧӧݧڧӧѧ֧ާ ڧ ߧ֧ ֧ݧߧ ҧ֧ݧ ߧ ѧڧӧѧ֧ ӧڧ ܧѧ֧, ѧӧѧ ߧ ڧߧ ߧ .

ѧԡ19


ӧާ֧ߧ ֧ާڧߧ ߧէ էڧܧ ڧէ (WWF) ֧էڧݧ ѧܧڧѧߧ ߧէڧ ݧ֧ӧ ܧݧ ֧ާ֧. ѧ ҧѧ ѧڧߧѧݧߧާ ѧէ ӧէ, ѧܧا ҧݧ֧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧ էݧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ڧէ ҧѧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ֧ڧڧէ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ էҧ֧ߧڧ. ݧѧԧէѧ ڧ ܧݧѧ էѧݧ էҧڧ ҧݧԧ ԧ֧ ӧѧڧӧѧߧڧ ݧܧ ԧݧѧߧ ڧߧڧѧ ۧڧӧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ. ݧѧߧѧڧ ѧܧڧѧߧ ѧ ӧէ ܧѧڧݧ ߧ 40%, ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧڧէ C ߧ 48%, էҧ֧ߧڧ C ߧ 32%, ڧҧݧ ֧ާ֧ ӧ٧ݧ ߧ 87%.

ѧԡ20


2001 ԧէ ާ ֧էڧݧ ڧ֧ߧէڧ էݧ է֧ߧ ڧ ڧ, ݧ, ѧӧڧ, ߧڧ ڧӧ ߧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ӧ֧էܧ ߧڧӧ֧ڧ֧ ֧ݧܧ٧ۧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧѧ. ڧ֧ߧէڧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ֧ا֧ԧէߧ.

ѧԡ21


C ֧ڧ ߧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧ ڧԧ֧ ڧ է֧֧ӧ, ڧާݧڧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ӧ֧ܧڧ ҧߧ֧ ֧ҧ֧ߧܧ. ڧԧܧ է֧ݧѧߧ ڧ ӧ֧է է֧ӧ֧ڧߧ, ѧܧڧ ܧѧ ҧ ҧ֧֧٧, ҧ֧ ܧ ֧ڧ, ާ ߧ ݧاѧ էݧԧڧ ԧէ. ֧֧ӧ, ܧѧܧ ݧѧܧ, ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧߧ էѧߧߧ ӧѧѧ, ҧ֧٧ѧߧ ܧѧ էݧ է֧֧, ѧ էݧ ӧ٧ݧ.

ѧԡ22


֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ܧѧ֧ݧ ӧܧߧ ֧է, ߧ ڧߧԧէ ݧѧ֧, ߧ ѧ֧ݧܧѧ ѧ֧ ߧ֧է֧է֧ߧߧѧ ڧ. էߧѧܧ ާ ֧ ߧ ӧҧѧӧѧ֧. ߧ֧ܧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ӧ֧ڧ, ӧ֧ԧڧ ѧߧڧ ާ ڧ٧ާ֧ݧѧ֧ ڧ֧ӧ է ܧݧѧէӧѧ֧ ڧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ҧѧܧ. ѧ֧ ާѧ ѧӧݧ֧ ֧ߧ ֧֧ѧҧܧ է, ԧէ ڧ ߧ֧ ڧ٧ӧէ ҧڧԧѧ, ڧݧ٧֧ާ ܧѧ ݧڧӧ էݧ ѧӧҧ.

ѧԡ23


ا֧ԧէߧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ӧէ ܧѧާѧߧڧ էѧا ާԧܧڧ ڧԧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ?էڧ ֧ӧ C ѧߧ?: էߧާ ֧ӧ ܧѧاէ էѧߧߧ ڧԧܧ ֧֧ڧݧ֧ ߧէ ?ѧ֧ է֧֧? էէ֧اܧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧߧ ֧ܧ. C ާ ܧѧ֧ݧ֧ C էѧ֧ է֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧ. ֧ԧէߧߧڧ է֧ߧ ԧ ڧѧݧߧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ҧѧݧ 16,7 ާڧݧݧڧߧ ֧ӧ C էݧ 40 ֧ܧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ 20 ѧߧѧ, ӧܧݧѧ ݧҧѧߧڧ, ѧߧԧݧѧէ֧, ڧ, ֧ߧѧ, -'ӧѧ, ԧѧߧէ ڧѧ.

ѧԡ24


ڧէڧݧ ݧ ѧ ܧԧէ-ߧڧҧէ ԧݧӧ, ѧ ݧѧڧܧӧ ҧݧܧ ާԧ ֧ӧѧڧ ߧ֧ ߧѧݧܧ ݧ֧٧ߧ ܧѧڧӧ? ާէ է֧ݧѧߧ ڧ 100%-ߧԧ ݧѧڧܧ ֧֧ѧҧѧߧߧ ݧڧڧݧ֧ߧӧ ҧݧ (PET). ާاߧ ѧӧڧ էڧ ߧ էԧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ֧ѧߧڧ էҧߧ ֧֧էӧڧاߧ ݧڧܧ ߧ ܧݧ֧ڧܧѧ C ڧէ֧ѧݧߧ էݧ էާѧߧ֧ԧ ڧ ڧݧ է֧ܧ ܧާߧѧ.

ѧԡ25


ݧѧԧէѧ ߧӧѧܧ ܧ֧ҧѧ٧ߧ ާ ҧݧ ߧ ֧֧ӧ٧ڧ ӧ٧է ѧܧӧܧѧ ڧߧާ ݧާ, ѧܧڧ ԧާ٧էܧڧ ߧ֧էҧߧ ѧߧ֧. ֧ڧ C ֧ӧ ѧҧڧ ݧ, ܧ ѧ էѧا ߧӧ ڧ֧ާ ާߧѧا : ֧ ߧا֧ ܧ֧ݧ ާ֧اէ ҧ ֧ߧ, ܧѧ ݧ ٧ӧ֧٧է. ݧ ܧѧ֧ݧ ٧ߧѧѧ֧ ݧ֧ԧܧ ѧߧӧܧ, ߧ ֧֧ ӧ֧ ۧڧӧ ߧ. ֧اէ ֧ ڧݧ ݧ֧ , ѧߧڧ֧ާ էߧ ܧߧ֧ۧߧ֧, ӧ֧ݧڧڧݧ ӧէӧ, ڧӧ֧ݧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ӧҧ CO2. ܧ ާߧԧڧ էԧڧ ֧ڧ ѧҧڧ ݧ֧ ӧ էӧڧ.

ѧԡ26


ܧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ڧܧ, ڧݧѧ, ߧ ݧѧէ ҧݧ֧ 10 000 ܧӧѧէѧߧ ާ֧ ٧֧ާݧ ߧ ԧݧҧڧߧ 87 է 125 ާ֧ է 304 ԧ֧٧ߧէ C ҧ֧ ݧاߧ ܧݧ 30 ܧڧݧާ֧. ѧܧѧ ԧ֧֧ާѧݧߧѧ ڧ֧ާ ߧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ߧ֧ԧѧڧӧߧԧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ݧѧߧէѧ, ܧݧܧ ֧ݧڧܧ ѧݧا֧ߧ ٧֧ާݧ֧. ާ ֧ ֧ݧӧ ߧѧ ڧ֧ާ ߧѧҧاѧ֧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧ ߧ֧ԧڧ֧ ާߧ 1600 ܧ էݧ ݧ֧ߧڧ 1400 ܧ C էݧ ܧߧէڧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ. ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ ܧߧާڧ 300 ߧ ߧ֧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ާ ӧҧ ѧާ֧ ԧݧ֧ܧڧݧԧ ԧѧ٧ ߧ 800 ߧ ԧ.

ѧԡ27


1999 ԧէ ާ ߧѧѧݧ ֧֧ӧ٧ڧ ӧ ӧѧ ڧ ֧ߧѧݧߧԧ ܧݧѧէ ݧާݧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ܧԧݧާ ߧ ѧӧѧߧ, ا֧ݧ֧٧ߧ էԧ. ֧٧է ѧҧѧ ߧ ݧ֧ܧڧ֧ӧ, ݧѧ֧ާ ڧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާ ڧߧڧܧ. ֧ۧѧ ڧ ݧާݧ ܧԧݧ ֧ا֧էߧ֧ӧߧ ܧڧ֧ ѧ ڧ 15C20 ݧߧ ٧ѧԧا֧ߧߧ ӧѧԧߧ.

ѧԡ28


ѧܧ էݧ اߧѧݧ ߧ 80% ڧ ֧֧ѧҧѧߧߧ ҧާѧԧ. ݧ ԧ ܧѧ ާ ߧѧѧݧ էѧӧѧ ڧ ݧا֧ߧߧ ӧڧէ, ߧ էߧ ѧݧ֧ ѧݧ ާ֧ѧ ѧ ҧݧ ѧ! ٧ӧݧڧݧ ߧѧ ߧڧ٧ڧ ߧ ݧܧ ѧߧߧ ѧէ ( ٧ߧѧڧ, ڧާ ӧѧ), ߧ ߧ֧ԧѧڧӧߧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ܧاѧ ֧է C ӧҧ ԧݧ֧ܧڧݧԧ ԧѧ٧ ֧֧ӧ٧ܧ ѧ ާ֧ߧڧݧڧ ߧ 75%.

ѧԡ29


ѧާ ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ԧѧڧާ ӧ֧էڧէѧާ ѧҧѧ֧ ݧߧ֧ߧ ҧѧѧ֧. ާاߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ԧէ ԧէߧ C ֧ ߧ ߧاߧ էܧݧѧ ݧ֧ܧ֧. ѧէڧ ҧѧѧ֧, ݧاڧ ֧ ߧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ݧߧ֧ ާ֧ ߧ 9C12 ѧ, ݧѧާ ҧէ֧ ӧ֧ڧ ֧֧ߧڧ 4 ѧ! ݧ֧ 2009 ԧէ ߧ ҧէ֧ ֧֧էѧӧѧ էߧ ݧѧާ ܧѧاէ էѧߧߧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ӧ֧ԧ ާڧ. ٧ӧݧڧ է֧, اڧӧڧ ҧ֧ ݧ֧ܧڧ֧ӧ, ڧѧ ڧѧ ݧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ާߧ. ֧ӧ ݧѧާ ҧէ ѧӧݧ֧ߧ ֧֧ ߧ ާ اڧ֧ݧ ѧܧڧѧߧ.

ѧԡ30


ާ֧ڧ֧ݧ ٧ӧݧ֧ ֧ԧݧڧӧѧ ߧѧ ӧէ. ާ ѧԧ ߧѧ ާ֧ߧ֧ էӧ ѧԧ, ֧٧ݧѧ ֧ԧ ܧߧާ ӧէ ߧ֧ԧڧ. ݧڧߧӧ ާ֧ڧ֧ݧ֧ ߧѧ֧ߧ ѧѧ C ۧӧ, ާԧѧڧ ܧѧڧ ѧ ӧէ ߧ 30%.

ѧԡ31


ѧߧڧ ѧѧ֧ ާ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ ֧ا֧ԧէߧԧ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧѧ֧ާԧ ݧڧӧ ާ ѧӧާѧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ڧ֧ާ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ݧѧԧէѧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ էѧڧܧѧ ӧ֧ ާ֧֧ߧڧ, ֧ݧ ѧ ߧڧܧԧ ߧ֧, ӧܧݧѧ֧ ѧ ҧ. ާ ԧ, 10 ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ѧߧڧ ڧݧ٧ ݧߧ֧ߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ էݧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ 60 է 80% ҧ֧ާ ֧ҧݧ֧ާ ԧ֧ ӧէ. ֧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧէڧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ ֧ӧݧ ݧܧ ާ ڧ֧ާ ֧ݧӧ ߧѧ. ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ӧڧݧ-ݧ-ڧӧ֧ (ڧާܧѧ ֧ߧ) ݧӧڧߧ ӧ֧ԧ ֧ҧݧ֧ާԧ ݧ֧ܧڧ֧ӧ (֧էߧ֧ߧߧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ էݧ ҧߧԧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ) ݧѧ ڧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާ ڧߧڧܧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ڧݧ٧ ԧ֧֧ާѧݧߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ, ڧݧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ӧߧ֧է֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ԧѧڧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ.

ѧԡ32


2005 ԧէ ԧ ڧѧݧߧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ѧާܧѧ ֧ܧ էէ֧اܧ ܧ ڧҧ֧ڧ ߧէ ֧֧էѧݧ ߧ 18 000 ݧ . ٧ӧݧڧݧ ҧ֧֧ڧ ܧݧߧ ҧ֧ߧڧ էݧ ҧݧ֧ԧ ڧݧ է֧֧ ڧѧݧߧѧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ѧѧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ է֧ݧѧ ا֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ߧ֧է֧ߧ֧اߧ ާ.

ѧԡ33


1992 ԧէ ߧѧݧاڧݧ ٧ѧ֧ ߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ӧڧ ӧѧ ݧէ֧اѧڧ ݧѧէѧԧ֧ߧ C ֧ߧ CFC HCFC. ݧ էܧѧ٧ѧߧ, ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ ٧էѧߧߧ ӧ֧֧ӧ ߧѧߧ ߧ֧ѧӧڧާ ֧ ٧ߧӧާ ݧ ߧѧ֧ ݧѧߧ֧.

ѧԡ34


ާ ߧӧ ֧ڧ ާا֧ ݧ֧ԧܧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ڧӧѧ ҧӧ է. է ާߧ ӧ֧է ֧էݧѧԧѧ ѧ٧ߧ ӧѧڧѧߧѧ ѧ٧ާ֧ ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧ էݧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ڧ ҧӧԧ ާ C ԧѧ٧֧ ֧ܧݧߧߧ ҧݧ է ѧܧ ڧ ҧѧѧ֧֧.

ѧԡ35


2005 ԧէ ٧ѧڧݧ ڧݧߧ ֧ܧ, ܧ ڧߧݧ ѧڧ ڧҧݧڧ٧ڧ֧ݧߧ 2000 ا֧ߧڧ. ߧ ӧڧӧѧݧ ֧ݧ ߧ էܧ , ܧ ٧ѧ֧ էѧӧѧݧڧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ . ѧߧ֧, 2000C2007 ԧէѧ, ӧ ӧ֧ާ ֧ѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ӧާ֧ߧԧ ֧ܧ ֧էӧѧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧѧѧڧ է֧ܧԧ է 500 է֧֧ӧߧ ߧ ֧ӧ֧ ߧէڧ, ا֧ߧڧߧ ӧڧݧ ԧ ӧ٧ѧڧާާ. ѧܧѧ٧ѧݧ ѧӧѧ է֧֧, ѧӧڧݧߧ ڧѧߧڧ ѧߧ ٧էӧ.

ѧԡ36


ݧ ӧ֧ԧ ݧ֧ܧڧ֧ӧ ѧէ֧ ߧ ӧ֧֧ߧڧ. -֧ӧ, ٧ѧѧ, ӧ-ӧ, ֧ ܧاѧ֧ ֧է. ާ ֧֧ ާ էѧ֧ ݧѧާܧ, ܧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ֧ էݧԧӧ֧ߧ֧ ܧݧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧѧާ ߧѧܧѧݧڧӧѧߧڧ. ӧ֧էڧէ ݧާڧߧ֧֧ߧߧ ݧѧާ էڧߧѧܧӧ ӧէ ӧ֧ ݧѧާѧާ ߧѧܧѧݧڧӧѧߧڧ ֧ҧݧ ߧ 80% ާ֧ߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ ݧاѧ ԧѧ٧է էݧ. ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ݧѧާ ѧܧܧާݧߧ ҧѧѧ֧֧ ӧާ֧ ҧߧ C էӧ ҧ, ܧ ܧߧާ է֧ߧԧ ާ֧ߧѧ ߧ֧ԧѧڧӧߧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ܧاѧ ֧է. ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧֧ ڧէ ҧ֧ӧ - ӧѧاߧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ ܧѧڧӧߧ ܧݧ . ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ԧѧڧ ݧѧާ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ڧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ҧѧ٧, ѧ ܧѧ ߧ է֧اѧ . ڧ ߧ ݧѧާ ߧ ֧ӧާ ܧݧѧ ѧߧ, է֧֧ݧߧ ҧ ѧܧڧ է էݧ֧اڧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧӧѧߧڧ, ާ ҧ ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ԧѧڧ ݧѧާ֧ ҧѧѧ֧֧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ߧѧ֧ ӧ֧ާ ߧ ֧ӧݧ֧. ܧݧܧ ѧܧڧܧ ӧ֧ҧӧѧߧ ߧѧڧ ܧѧ֧ݧ֧, ާ ֧ۧѧ ѧާѧڧӧѧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧܧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧ ڧݧ ڧӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ էէߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ էݧ ҧէӧѧߧڧ ߧܧ ҧ ݧѧާ ҧѧѧ֧֧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ԧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧާ ڧۧܧԧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ.

ѧԡ37


ӧާ֧ߧ ߧէ WWF ާ ҧ֧ާ ߧ֧ݧ֧ԧѧݧߧާ ӧҧܧѧާ ݧ֧ ҧӧ֧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ާ ѧӧ է֧ӧ֧ڧߧ ڧ ݧ֧ߧ ٧ۧ ֧ڧڧܧѧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ݧѧԧէѧ ާ էߧڧ֧ӧ, ܧ ߧѧѧݧ 2002 ԧէ, ҧݧ ӧէӧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧ ݧѧէ ֧ڧڧڧӧѧߧߧ ݧ֧ ڧѧ. ѧ ѧҧ ѧܧا ҧӧӧѧݧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ݧѧէ ݧ֧ ֧ڧڧܧѧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧ C 3,3 ާڧݧݧڧߧ է 20 ާڧݧݧڧߧ ԧ֧ܧѧ, ߧѧ ѧߧ ӧ ާڧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ֧ڧڧڧӧѧߧߧ ݧ֧ߧ ٧ۧ.

ѧԡ38


ڧѧݧߧѧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ӧާ֧ߧ ԧѧާާ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ էէ֧اڧӧѧ֧ ֧ܧ, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ֧ ا֧ߧڧ 500 է֧֧ӧߧ ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާԧ ?ܧӧӧԧ ? ߧ ֧ӧ֧ ߧէڧ. 50 000 ا֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ ߧѧѧݧߧ ֧էӧ, ܧ ާԧ ڧ ٧ѧߧ ֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ݧӧ, ٧ߧѧڧ, ӧ֧ݧڧڧ է ӧڧ ֧ާ֧. ѧާܧѧ ֧ܧ ݧѧߧڧ ҧ֧ߧڧ ԧѧާ, ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ է ާڧܧܧ֧էڧѧ, ӧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧էާݧ֧ߧߧ ԧѧاէѧߧܧڧ ѧӧѧ ڧӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧڧ ڧߧڧ ާ֧ߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ.

ѧԡ39


֧ܧݧߧߧѧ է , ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧѧ էݧ ڧ֧ӧ էܧ, ߧ է֧اڧ ӧڧߧ֧. 1994 ԧէ ާ ֧ڧݧ ߧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ӧڧߧӧ ѧݧ, ӧ֧է ӧڧߧ֧ ӧݧ֧ ӧܧܧڧߧ ا֧ݧ ާ֧ѧݧݧ.

ѧԡ40


էҧߧ ܧ٧ڧߧ ާ է֧ݧѧ֧ ڧ ԧ, ѧ֧ ҧѧߧѧߧӧԧ է֧֧ӧ ݧ ҧ اѧ. ާߧԧڧ ڧѧ ҧ֧ݧ֧٧ߧ ާ. ݧ ԧ ܧѧ ߧ է֧֧ӧ ٧֧ӧѧ ӧ֧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ݧߧ֧ߧ-ا֧ݧ ݧէ, ߧ ާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧ ާڧѧ֧. էߧѧܧ ާ ֧ԧ ߧ ӧҧѧӧѧ֧, ѧ٧է֧ݧ֧ ߧ ӧݧܧߧ ѧӧݧ֧ ڧ ߧ ݧߧ. ݧ֧֧ߧߧѧ ܧ٧ڧߧ էݧ ҧݧ֧ էݧԧӧ֧ߧ ܧӧѧ֧ ݧѧܧ ߧ ӧէߧ ߧӧ.

ѧԡ41


ݧڧߧӧ ߧѧڧ էا֧ާ ӧէ ֧էڧߧ էݧ ӧ֧ԧ ާڧ ѧڧާ֧ߧ ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧڧ էܧ ݧاҧ ڧѧߧڧ , ܧ էѧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ӧ֧էܧڧ էܧ. ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧڧ ڧܧݧѧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ էҧ֧ߧڧ ֧ڧڧէ, ѧܧا ҧӧ֧ էէ֧اѧߧڧ ѧ٧ߧҧѧ٧ڧ ӧڧէ ܧݧԧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧӧߧӧ֧ڧ. ԧݧҧѧݧߧ ѧڧާ֧ߧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧ 20 ԧѧߧڧ֧ܧڧ էܧ ڧѧߧڧ.

ѧԡ42


ާѧݧէ֧ԧڧ C ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ, է֧اѧ֧֧ ҧߧ ӧէ, ܧѧ է֧ӧ֧ڧߧ, էߧѧܧ ߧ ѧܧا ާا֧ էҧѧӧݧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ֧. ڧ٧ҧ֧اѧߧڧ ӧ֧է էݧ ٧էӧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ ߧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ӧէ֧ݧ֧ާԧ ڧ ާ֧ҧ֧ݧ ާѧݧէ֧ԧڧէ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧ ԧڧ ߧާ. ֧ާڧާ, ҧ ֧ԧ է֧اѧߧڧ ߧѧڧ ӧѧѧ ߧ ߧӧ է֧֧ӧ ӧ֧ӧӧѧݧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ էݧ ߧѧѧݧߧ է֧ӧ֧ڧߧ. 1993 ԧէ ާ ֧֧ѧݧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ݧѧܧ ߧ ߧӧ ާѧݧէ֧ԧڧէ, ٧ѧ֧ ڧܧݧڧݧ ӧ֧֧ӧ ڧ ܧݧ֧֧ߧ ܧߧܧڧ. ݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ էݧ ߧҧܧ է֧ݧѧߧ ڧ , ӧէ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ާѧݧէ֧ԧڧէ ڧ ߧ֧ ݧ֧էߧڧ ԧէ ܧѧڧݧ ߧ 40%. ֧ۧѧ ߧѧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ߧڧا ߧ, ڧߧ .

ѧԡ43


էߧڧѧ֧ ֧ާڧߧ ߧէ էڧܧ ڧէ (WWF) ѧҧ ߧѧ ֧ܧѧާ, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧާ ߧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧էߧԧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ܧݧڧާѧ ݧѧߧ֧.

էڧ ڧ ڧާ֧ ѧܧԧ էߧڧ֧ӧ C ӧާ֧ߧ ڧݧڧ , ߧէ WWF է֧ݧߧ ѧӧڧܧ ݧ, ӧ֧ڧ ڧѧ ٧էѧߧڧ էߧ֧ӧߧڧܧ ҧѧ٧ӧ ֧ ҧݧѧ ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ا֧ߧڧ, ܧߧާڧ է֧ߧ֧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧէڧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ӧѧ ڧܧѧ֧ާԧ ݧڧӧ.

ާ ԧ, ާ C ӧާ֧ߧ ާ֧ߧާ ӧݧѧާ, ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧާ է֧ݧӧ ܧԧ էԧڧާ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧާ C ѧҧѧ֧ ߧѧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ֧ ڧݧߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ֧ݧڧܧҧڧѧߧڧ, ڧѧ , ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ܧݧԧڧߧ ӧڧէ ѧߧ. ѧܧݧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧ֧ ݧѧߧڧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧڧ էԧڧ ѧߧѧ.

ѧԡ44


ߧ ݧҧ ݧӧ ?է?. ڧݧ٧֧ ݧҧ ӧ٧ާاߧ, ҧ ֧ӧѧڧ է ڧ٧ӧէӧ էߧԧ ӧѧ էݧ ڧ٧ԧӧݧ֧ߧڧ էԧԧ. ֧ܧѧߧ ڧާ֧ C էܧ . ܧѧ֧ӧ ߧѧݧߧڧ֧ݧ էݧ ߧ֧ ڧݧ٧ ҧ֧٧ܧ, ѧӧڧ֧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ է֧ .

ѧԡ45


ѧԧѧ٧ڧ ݧ֧֧ߧէ֧ ӧ֧ԧڧ ݧѧ֧ 80% ߧ֧ԧڧ էݧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧէڧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ӧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ ާ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧ֧֧ާѧݧߧ ѧߧӧܧ. ֧ާէ֧ ܧӧѧاڧ, ѧݧا֧ߧߧ ٧ߧ ѧܧӧܧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ, ҧѧ٧ ֧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧߧ ԧ֧֧ާѧݧߧ ڧ֧ާ ܧѧߧէڧߧѧӧڧ.

ѧԡ46


֧֧ӧ ܧѧѧߧ ݧ էӧ֧ا֧ߧ ֧֧٧ߧ ԧ٧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ݧڧڧߧܧѧާ ܧѧѧߧӧ ާڧߧڧ֧ ާݧ (Cameraria ohridella). ӧ ԧէ ߧѧ٧ѧ ڧ֧էڧߧڧݧѧ ֧ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧ ѧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧѧߧ ݧ. ѧاէ ֧ߧ է֧ ڧ ܧ է֧ܧڧ ѧէ, ܧѧ֧ݧ էߧڧܧ ҧڧѧ ѧӧڧ ܧѧѧߧ. ѧ֧ ҧѧߧߧ ݧէ էѧ ѧާѧ֧ӧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧާѧߧڧ, ݧ֧ߧߧѧ ڧҧݧ ڧݧ٧֧ էݧ ٧ѧܧܧ ڧߧ֧ܧڧڧէߧ ֧ѧѧ էݧ ݧ֧֧ߧڧ է֧֧ӧ֧. ݧѧԧէѧ ѧڧ ֧ܧ ڧҧ֧ ԧާߧ ݧߧ: 2008 ԧէ ҧݧ ҧѧߧ 40 ߧ ܧѧѧߧ. 372 է֧֧ӧ ҧݧ ҧѧҧѧߧ ֧էӧ ߧѧ֧ܧާ, է֧֧ӧ֧ էѧݧ ѧ ҧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ӧ֧֧ C ާ ߧԧ ҧ ݧ֧է֧ԧ اڧԧѧߧڧ ѧا֧ߧߧ ݧڧ֧.

ѧԡ47


ߧԧէ ܧާѧߧէڧӧܧ ާاߧ ٧ѧާ֧ߧڧ ӧڧѧݧߧ ӧ֧֧ C ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ, ӧڧէ֧- ڧݧ ڧߧ֧ߧ֧-ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ֧. ѧѧ֧ާ ܧѧѧ ڧݧ է֧ݧӧ ֧٧է. ާԧѧ֧ ߧڧ٧ڧ ѧէ, ާ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧էߧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ڧէ ӧҧէڧ ӧ֧ާ էݧ ݧڧߧ اڧ٧ߧ էߧڧܧ. ߧѧѧݧ 2008 ڧߧѧߧӧԧ ԧէ էاߧ ѧէ ܧѧڧݧڧ ߧ 20% ѧӧߧ֧ߧڧ ֧էէڧ ֧ڧէ, ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ߧڧݧڧ ҧ֧ާ ӧҧ CO2. ֧ۧѧ ާ ڧ֧ ҧ է֧ ֧٧ݧѧ.

ѧԡ48


ѧէӧߧ էܧ էݧ է֧֧ է֧ݧѧߧ ڧ ݧڧݧ֧ڧߧ, ԧݧѧէܧ էݧԧӧ֧ߧ ݧ֧ߧܧ, ߧ է֧اѧ֧ ݧ էԧڧ ӧ֧էߧ ڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ӧ֧֧, ܧ ѧ ӧ֧ѧ ڧܧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧߧ ݧѧڧܧ . ߧѧݧا֧ ٧ѧ֧ ߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ էݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ߧѧڧ ӧѧ ֧ ߧѧѧݧ է֧ӧߧ ԧէ. էڧߧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧܧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ ԧ ѧӧڧݧ C ڧ٧ݧڧ ӧէ, էݧ ڧ٧ԧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧ ߧ ֧ӧ֧ ѧӧߧ֧ߧߧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧ... ܧ.

ѧԡ49


ԧܧѧ ݧߧѧ ܧѧߧ ֧ݧߧԧ ҧ֧ݧ 365+ ߧ 50% ڧ ڧ ݧܧ, ߧ 50% C ڧ ݧڧ֧ݧݧ, ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާԧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ ߧ ߧӧ ֧ݧݧݧ٧. ڧ٧ӧէڧ ڧ է֧ӧ֧ߧԧ ӧݧܧߧ, ѧӧݧ֧ާԧ ڧ ݧ֧ߧ ٧ۧ (ԧէ ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧէ ߧڧا, ֧ ߧ ݧܧӧ ݧѧߧѧڧ). ާ ԧ, ڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ӧ֧֧ӧ, ߧ֧ҧէڧާ էݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ҧ֧ݧ 365+ , էӧ֧ԧѧ ֧֧ѧҧܧ ٧ѧܧ ڧ֧ާѧ: ٧ӧݧ֧ ާڧߧڧާڧ٧ڧӧѧ է ߧ֧ا֧ݧѧ֧ݧߧ ܧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧ֧էӧڧ.

ѧԡ50


ѧڧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ֧ ا֧ߧڧ ?ܧӧӧ ? ߧէڧ. ѧ էߧڧ֧ӧ ԧѧާާ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ (UN Development Programme, UNDP) ֧֧ߧڧ 2009C2013 ԧէ էѧڧ էݧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧѧݧߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧӧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ا֧ߧڧߧѧ 500 է֧֧ӧ֧ߧ ڧߧէڧۧܧԧ ѧ ѧ-ѧէ֧, ԧէ ߧ ӧ֧է ӧާ֧ߧ ѧҧ 2000 ԧէ. ܧѧۧߧ֧ ާ֧ 50 000 ا֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ٧ѧߧ ֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ݧӧ, ٧ߧѧڧ, ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧ է ӧڧ ֧ާ֧. ާ ԧ, ѧާܧѧ ֧ܧ ݧѧߧڧ֧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧էާݧ֧ߧߧ ڧѧݧߧ ѧӧѧ ڧӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧڧ ڧߧڧ ާ֧ߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ.

ѧԡ51


ߧէܧڧߧߧ ݧڧ C ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ էߧ ֧ߧѧ. ߧڧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧ ڧߧڧ ާѧԧߧڧߧԧ ݧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ԧӧڧ ҧ֧ ܧߧާڧ ҧݧ ߧ֧ԧڧ, ֧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ҧߧ ڧݧ ֧ܧݧܧ֧ѧާڧ֧ܧڧ ݧڧ. է֧ ߧѧԧ֧ӧѧ֧ ݧܧ ܧѧݧ ڧݧ ܧӧէ, ѧާ ݧڧ ѧ֧ ݧէߧ: ߧڧاѧ֧ ѧ ߧ֧ԧڧ. ڧߧէܧڧߧߧ ݧڧ ѧӧݧ֧ 80%. ݧ ѧӧߧ֧ߧڧ: ֧ܧݧܧ֧ѧާڧ֧ܧ ݧڧ C ӧ֧ԧ 55%.

ѧԡ52


٧ѧ֧ߧ ԧѧާާ ާ ا֧ӧѧ ѧԧѧߧ ѧڧߧ, ڧ٧֧է֧ԧ 2005 ԧէ. ѧާܧѧ ԧѧާާ, ݧڧӧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ?էѧ ҧ? (Give a Hug), ܧѧاէ էѧߧߧ ӧ ӧ֧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ էܧ ާ ֧է էߧާ էݧݧѧ ֧֧ڧݧ֧ ߧ ާ ا֧ӧѧ ڧڧۧߧ ҧ֧էӧڧ ѧާ֧ڧܧѧߧܧԧ էѧ٧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧԧ ֧.

ѧԡ53


ߧѧ֧ ݧ , ӧ ާߧԧڧ ֧ާ է ֧ӧ֧ էܧ ӧҧѧӧѧ֧? ߧ ݧܧ է֧ߧԧ ߧ ӧ֧֧. ڧ٧ӧէӧ էܧ C ҧݧڧ ҧ֧ާ CO2, ާ ܧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ڧ֧ӧ է ާԧѧ֧ ާ֧ߧѧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ӧҧ ԧݧ֧ܧڧݧ. ߧ֧ۧߧ֧ ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ ݧڧ ݧӧڧ էݧ ѧߧ֧ߧڧ էܧ ԧӧ ҧݧ. ֧ܧ ڧ ߧڧ ҧ֧ߧߧ էҧߧ: ߧڧ ڧ էݧ ߧ ڧ, ڧ ߧڧ ݧ֧ԧܧ էѧӧѧ էܧ ߧاߧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ, ҧ ԧӧܧ ާ֧ߧ ӧҧѧӧѧ. ߧ է֧ݧߧ ܧߧ֧ۧߧ֧ 365+ ߧѧ֧ߧ ֧ާߧ ݧѧڧܧӧ ֧ܧ, ܧӧ٧ ܧ ֧ܧѧ֧ ݧڧߧ اڧէܧ, ٧ӧݧ ڧ էݧ ѧӧѧ ӧ֧ا֧. ܧܧ ֧ާܧ ڧާ֧֧ ާ֧ߧѧ ѧܧ, ߧ ֧ߧܧѧ C է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ҧ ٧ߧѧ, ܧݧܧ էܧ ѧݧ.

ѧԡ54


֧ӧѧ ٧֧ާݧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧѧߧ, ݧڧӧ֧ԧ 2005 ԧէ, ڧѧݧߧѧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ֧֧էѧݧ ֧֧ ߧ 335 000 է֧. ݧ ڧܧݧߧ ѧԧڧ, ҧڧӧ֧ԧ ߧ ߧާ 2008 ԧէ, ڧѧݧߧѧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ا֧ӧӧѧݧ ѧէѧӧڧ ֧֧ ߧ ?ѧ֧ է֧֧? 200 000 ާԧܧڧ ڧԧ֧. ֧٧ӧѧۧߧ ڧѧڧ ԧ ڧѧݧߧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ߧ ߧѧѧݧߧ ѧէڧ է֧ݧѧ֧ ߧ֧է֧ߧ֧اߧ ا֧ӧӧѧߧڧ, ٧ѧ֧, ѧҧѧ ѧߧ֧ܧڧާ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧާ, ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ ֧էߧ- էݧԧߧ էէ֧اܧ, ߧ֧ҧէڧާ էݧ ݧڧܧӧڧէѧڧ ݧ֧էӧڧ ڧڧۧߧ ҧ֧էӧڧ. ѧڧާ֧, ާԧѧ֧ ӧѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ ܧݧ ڧѧ ݧ ٧֧ާݧ֧֧ߧڧ 2008 ԧէ.

ѧԡ55


ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧҧ ֧ݧڧܧҧڧѧߧڧ ܧѧاէ ߧӧ էߧڧ ݧѧ֧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ڧ 6 ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ԧѧڧ ݧѧާ. ڧ֧֧ߧڧ ܧ ڧ ݧاҧ ܧާѧߧڧ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ ٧ѧާ֧ߧ֧ ݧѧާ ߧӧާ, ѧ ѧӧݧ֧ ߧ ڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ. ܧҧܧ ݧѧާѧާ էѧ֧ ڧߧާѧڧ ӧ֧ ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ا֧ߧڧ ܧѧ ߧ ѧҧ, ѧ էާ. ݧ٧ ֧ ݧѧާ, ܧѧاէ էߧڧ ާا֧ ܧߧާڧ ߧ ݧѧ ӧ֧ԧ ҧӧԧ ݧ֧ܧڧ֧ӧ է 50 ֧ӧ ԧ.

ѧԡ56


էڧ էߧڧ ߧѧ֧ԧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ѧݧڧߧڧ ڧާ֧ߧ ӧڧ ֧էݧا֧ߧڧ֧ ӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧ ѧܧӧܧ էݧ ߧѧݧߧ ݧѧާ . ٧ѧާ֧ڧ, ܧҧܧ ާاߧ ާ֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧ݧ 30 ֧ߧ, ֧ݧ -էԧާ ݧاڧ ߧ֧ է֧ѧݧ ݧѧާ. ҧէڧ ӧ ڧէ֧ ֧ڧѧݧڧѧާ ѧܧӧܧ ӧѧ , ӧ ֧֧է ӧ֧ݧ ֧֧ԧӧ ѧӧڧܧѧާ. ֧֧, ҧݧѧԧէѧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧߧ ݧѧا֧ߧߧ ѧҧ ӧ֧ ܧާѧߧէ, ߧ ܧѧاէ ѧݧ֧ ާ֧ѧ֧ 24 ݧѧާ , ߧ 18, ܧѧ ҧݧ ѧߧ.

ѧԡ57


ڧѧݧߧѧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ էէ֧اܧ ѧާ ٧ߧѧڧާ ֧ܧѧ ߧէ ҧݧѧ ٧էѧӧѧߧ֧ߧڧ. ߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧ ߧ ڧߧڧ ߧ ާ֧ѧ ܧާݧ֧ܧߧ ާ֧, ާԧѧڧ ӧاڧӧѧ է֧ ߧ֧ܧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ѧݧ ѧۧߧѧ ߧէڧ. ԧѧާާ ӧѧӧѧ֧ 18 ѧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ֧է֧ߧߧ ѧҧ ݧѧߧڧ֧ ާ 80 ާڧݧݧڧߧѧ է֧֧ էܧ, ѧܧا 10 ާڧݧݧڧߧѧ ا֧ߧڧ. ֧ߧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ C ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧էӧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ڧѧߧڧ է֧֧ ֧էӧ ӧڧѧާڧߧڧ٧ѧڧ, ѧԧѧߧէ ԧէߧԧ ӧܧѧާݧڧӧѧߧڧ, ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧ ڧ֧ӧ ӧէ ٧էѧߧڧ ٧էӧ ֧է էݧ է֧֧ ڧ ֧ާ֧.

ѧԡ58


֧ ܧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ӧ֧էܧڧ էܧ ֧ѧߧ էڧ ֧ڧڧܧѧڧ ڧ֧ާ UTZ. ԧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ާاߧ ݧ֧էڧ ӧݧ է ܧ֧ۧߧ ݧѧߧѧڧ էѧߧߧ ߧ ѧܧӧܧ. UTZ C ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާѧ ߧ֧ܧާާ֧֧ܧѧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ, ѧߧӧڧӧѧ ڧѧݧߧ ܧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧާ ӧ٧է֧ݧӧѧߧڧ էڧڧҧڧ ܧ ҧݧէ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧߧڧ ۧڧӧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.

ѧԡ59


ѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ѧߧڧ ?ާ֧ѧߧ? ߧ ڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ, ߧ ѧܧ է ֧ҧ ѧӧէѧ. 2008 ԧէ 88% ڧ է ҧݧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧ ߧ ֧֧ѧҧܧ ڧݧ اڧԧѧߧڧ, ݧ֧ߧߧѧ ߧ֧ԧڧ ٧ѧ֧ ҧݧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ. ѧܧا ܧߧާڧ ӧէ: ߧӧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧ ҧ֧٧ӧէߧ ڧѧ, ߧ֧ܧ ѧ ߧѧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ާ ӧէߧѧҧا֧ߧڧ ٧ ֧ էاէ֧ӧ ӧէ, ܧ ާاߧ ݧ٧ӧѧ էݧ ާӧ ߧڧѧ٧.

ѧԡ60


ӧѧѧ ߧ էݧاߧ է֧اѧ ާߧڧ֧ݧߧ ӧ֧֧. ݧ ӧڧ ӧѧ ާ ڧݧ٧֧ ݧѧܧ ݧܧ ߧ ӧէߧ ߧӧ ڧݧ -ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ. -ݧѧ C է֧ݧߧ ާѧ֧ڧѧ ߧ ߧӧ ާߧާ֧ (ާݧ֧ܧ), ܧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ӧѧ֧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ֧ ݧѧڧݧ֧ӧ ݧ֧. ӧ ԧݧѧէܧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ާ֧ҧ֧ݧ ܧ ѧܧڧ ӧڧէ ݧѧܧ, ҧӧ֧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ӧ֧էߧԧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ ܧاѧ ֧է ٧էӧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ.

ѧԡ61


էߧڧ֧ӧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧާ ڧէѧߧߧާ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧާ ӧ ӧ֧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ѧݧڧ ӧէ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ ֧ާڧߧѧ էݧ ݧ֧ߧ ݧҧ IKEA Family, ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧڧߧѧݧߧާ ߧ֧ԧ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ. ӧާ֧ߧ ڧѧݧߧܧڧާ ߧ֧ԧ֧ڧ֧ܧڧާ ܧާѧߧڧާ ܧѧ֧ݧ ҧݧ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧ ܧݧ 800 000 ߧѧҧ էݧ ܧߧާڧ ߧ֧ԧڧ, ܧ ӧݧ ܧѧ ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ԧѧڧ ݧѧާ, ѧ ڧҧݧ֧ߧڧ էݧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ѧէ ӧէ.

ѧԡ62


1998 ԧէ ѧߧѧէ էߧڧѧ֧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ֧ Tree Canada C ܧߧ֧֧ۧ ҧ֧ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ߧ֧ܧާާ֧֧ܧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ֧, ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ۧ ӧѧէܧ է֧֧ӧ֧ ѧߧ. ӧ֧ާ ѧާܧѧ ԧѧާާ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ?ҧڧ է֧֧ӧ C ѧէ ߧӧ? (Pick a Tree, Plant a Tree) ҧݧ ӧѧا֧ߧ 14 000 է֧֧ӧ֧. ѧߧѧէ է֧ݧѧ֧ ا֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ Tree Canada ڧ ֧է, ҧѧߧߧ ٧ ֧ էѧ ߧӧԧէߧڧ ֧ݧ . ާ ԧ, ܧѧاէ ӧ֧ߧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ڧݧѧާ էߧڧܧ ӧѧاڧӧѧ ާݧէ է֧֧ӧ. ѧѧ, ѧا֧ߧ ܧާ֧ߧڧ֧ ҧ֧ ԧݧ֧ܧڧݧԧ ԧѧ٧, ҧѧ٧ڧۧ ݧ֧ܧڧ֧ܧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ڧҧݧڧ٧ڧ֧ݧߧ 1300 էާ ֧֧ߧڧ ԧէ.

ܧѧاէ ߧӧԧէߧ֧ ֧ݧܧ, ܧ ܧѧ֧ݧ ӧ٧ӧѧѧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧ ݧ ѧ٧էߧڧܧ, ѧݧڧ ֧֧էѧ֧ 3 ֧ӧ ߧ էէ֧اܧ ٧֧ݧ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ѧܧ. ڧ ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ߧߧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧ է֧֧ӧ֧ ڧ٧ԧѧӧݧڧӧѧ֧ ܧާ, ܧ ܧߧ֧ߧ ڧԧ ߧӧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ٧֧ާݧ.

ѧߧڧ էߧڧѧ֧ ѧڧߧѧݧߧ ݧ֧ߧ ӧ֧էާӧ ѧߧڧ (Office national des fort, ONF) ѧҧ ߧѧ ֧ܧ ӧѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ֧ ֧ԧڧߧѧݧߧ ѧܧ ڧݧ (Parc du Pilat) ߧ ֧ܧ ѧ. ܧѧاէ ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ߧӧԧէߧ֧ ֧ݧܧ ا ҧݧ֧ ݧ֧ 1 ֧ӧ ا֧ӧ֧ ߧ ڧէѧߧߧ է֧֧ݧߧ. 1 250 000 ֧ӧ ҧݧ ӧݧا֧ߧ 30 ާ֧ߧ ֧ܧ, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ڧݧ ڧӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ҧݧ֧ާѧ ݧ֧.

ѧԡ63


էߧڧܧ ӧ֧ۧѧڧ ڧߧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ѧ ԧѧ٧֧, ҧ ܧѧ֧ݧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧݧ ڧ ܧѧ ѧܧӧܧ էݧ ֧ܧݧߧߧ ܧ֧ѧާڧ֧ܧ է ӧާ֧ ߧӧ ѧܧӧߧ ҧާѧԧ.

ѧԡ64


2004C2006 ԧէѧ ѧݧڧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧݧ էݧ ܧݧߧڧܧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ֧ҧߧ ҧڧ, ֧ ڧ էӧ ѧ֧. ֧ӧѧ C ?ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧ԧ֧ҧݧ֧ߧڧ?, ӧѧ C ?ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ?. ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ ҧݧ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ ٧էѧߧ ܧݧ, ѧݧا֧ߧߧ է ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧާ.

ѧԡ65


ѧاէ ݧ֧ ܧѧ ӧߧ, ާ ߧڧܧѧݧ֧. է֧ݧѧ ڧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާԧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ C ֧, ܧѧ ֧էӧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ҧݧ ߧ ܧѧ֧ߧ ڧݧ ҧ֧ݧ֧ߧ, ѧڧӧѧߧ ѧ٧ߧ ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧܧѧ.

ѧԡ66


C էߧ ڧ ֧ ߧѧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ҧѧا֧ߧڧ֧ ֧ߧѧا֧ ܧѧߧէڧߧѧӧܧڧ ܧѧ٧. ߧ է֧ݧѧߧ ڧ ֧ ݧܧ ӧߧ ӧڧ ֧ԧѧߧ ا֧ߧڧߧѧާ-֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ݧާ ڧ է֧֧ӧ֧ߧ ߧէڧ. ѧاէ ѧܧ ܧѧ֧ߧڧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧ, ߧ ֧ԧ ҧߧ ߧ ӧڧ ڧާ ڧߧէڧۧܧ ާѧ֧ڧ. ا֧ߧڧߧ ҧݧ ӧӧݧ֧֧ߧ ֧ܧ ڧѧݧߧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ , ٧ѧ֧ߧߧ 2000 ԧէ ܧѧ٧ѧӧڧ ڧߧѧߧӧ ڧѧݧߧ էէ֧اܧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ 20 000 ا֧ߧڧ. ԧէ ѧާܧѧ ԧѧާާ ڧܧ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧѧѧڧ է֧ܧԧ է ڧߧէڧۧܧ ѧ ѧ-ѧէ֧ ҧݧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ا֧ߧܧڧ ԧ ӧ٧ѧڧާާ.

ѧԡ67


ӧ֧ڧ ӧާ֧ߧ ߧէ WWF 2008 ԧէ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧݧ ܧߧܧ էݧ ֧ߧڧܧ 1C3- ܧݧѧ, ӧ֧ߧߧ ۧڧӧާ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ. ݧ֧ 48 000 է֧֧ ҧڧѧݧ ѧݧާڧߧڧ֧ӧ էӧ֧ߧڧܧ ڧ- ԧ֧ڧ ӧ֧֧ (֧֧ѧҧܧ ѧݧާڧߧڧ ֧ҧ֧ ߧ 96% ާ֧ߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ, ֧ ֧ԧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ!). ҧ֧ ݧاߧ ӧ֧էܧڧ ܧݧߧڧܧ ҧѧݧ էݧ ֧֧ѧҧܧ ҧݧ֧ 50 ާڧݧݧڧߧ էӧ֧ߧڧܧ C 35 ߧ ѧݧާڧߧڧ. ާ ԧ, է֧ ާߧԧ ٧ߧѧݧ ܧݧԧڧ ߧ֧ԧҧ֧֧ا֧ߧڧ.

ѧԡ68


ڧߧӧѧߧߧ ܧѧߧ ܧѧڧӧ ӧڧӧѧ ݧҧ ڧߧ֧֧, ߧ էݧ ڧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ֧ҧ֧ ާߧԧ ӧէ ܧѧڧ֧ݧ֧.

֧ԧէߧ 40% էܧڧ ڧ ѧܧԧ ֧ܧڧݧ, ӧܧݧѧ ֧ڧ , ڧ٧ӧէڧ ԧ֧ڧӧߧ ާ֧էڧܧѧ.

ݧѧԧէѧ ڧ ߧ ݧܧ ܧѧڧݧ ѧ ӧէ ߧ 60% C ܧѧڧݧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ڧԧާ֧ߧ. ԧ ݧڧݧ ܧѧ֧ӧ. ڧߧӧѧߧߧ ֧ܧڧݧ ާԧ ҧߧԧ, ܧѧܧ ֧ԧ ߧ֧, է֧ݧѧ֧ ֧ԧ ڧէ֧ѧݧߧ էݧ է֧ܧԧ ֧ݧߧԧ ҧ֧ݧ C ӧ֧է ֧ԧ ڧէڧ ѧ ڧѧ.

ѧԡ69


֧اէߧѧէߧ ߧ էڧܧ ڧէ էߧڧѧ ܧݧڧާѧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ܧѧ. ߧѧ֧ ӧ֧ާ ڧ ֧.

էڧ ڧ ڧ ֧ܧ ڧ٧ѧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ֧֧ѧҧܧ ӧѧ ܧߧѧߧڧ ڧ ܧ اڧ٧ߧ. ڧ֧ ҧ, ܧ ٧ӧݧڧݧ ݧڧҧ ѧ٧ݧѧԧѧ ڧ ߧ ܧݧԧڧߧ ܧާߧ֧ߧ, ݧڧҧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ӧڧߧԧ . ԧ ֧ܧ ڧ٧ѧ֧ ӧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ѧާѧڧӧѧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ֧֧ӧէ ڧ ߧ ҧݧ֧ ܧݧԧڧߧ ާ֧է. ѧܧا ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ާ ӧ֧ߧڧ֧ ԧѧާߧ ܧѧ֧ݧ֧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧڧ ӧѧ, ٧ӧݧڧ ڧ ڧӧѧ ܧݧԧڧ ӧ֧էߧ֧ӧߧ اڧ٧ߧ. ֧ӧ֧, ݧ֧էߧڧ, ֧ܧ, ܧ ާ ٧է֧ ѧܧѧا֧, ܧѧѧ֧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ӧҧ ԧݧ֧ܧڧݧԧ ԧѧ٧ ߧѧ֧ ֧ѧߧߧ ҧڧ٧ߧ֧. ٧ߧѧ էԧڧ ֧ܧѧ ާاߧ ѧԧ֡43.

ѧԡ70


٧ѧڧݧ ֧ܧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ߧ֧ԧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ էݧ ѧӧڧܧ (SEEP, Supplier Energy Efficiency Project), ֧ԧ ֧ݧ C ާ ߧѧڧ ѧӧڧܧѧ 2011 ԧէ ӧ֧ݧڧڧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ߧ֧ԧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ߧѧڧ ӧѧ ߧ 30%.

ݧ ߧѧѧݧ, ٧ѧߧݧѧ ѧӧڧܧѧާ ӧѧ ڧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧ, ڧ٧ӧէӧ ܧ ֧ҧ֧ ֧֧٧ߧ ٧ѧѧ ߧ֧ԧڧ, ѧܧڧ, ܧѧ ֧ܧڧݧ, ֧ܧݧ, ݧѧڧܧ, ܧѧާ֧ߧߧѧ ܧ֧ѧާڧܧ, է֧ӧ֧ߧ ݧڧ ѧݧާڧߧڧ.

ߧѧѧݧ ѧҧѧ ڧާ֧ߧ 100 ѧӧڧܧѧާ, ާߧԧڧ, ݧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ֧ܧڧӧߧ ߧ֧ԧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧݧѧ է 40%. էҧߧѧ ѧҧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ߧ֧ԧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧݧ֧ާ ڧߧڧܧ ҧէ֧ էݧاѧ.

ѧԡ71


ѧӧ֧ߧ, ӧ ӧڧէ֧ݧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧѧ ߧѧ ֧-ާѧڧߧ. ݧ է, ӧ ٧ߧѧ֧, ާ ֧ߧ ֧֧٧ߧ ߧڧާ ҧݧ֧ާѧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧ էݧԧӧ֧ߧ ߧѧڧ ӧѧ. ߧ֧ߧ, ӧѧ է էԧڧ ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ C ҧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ѧէڧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ.

ѧ ѧڧާ֧ߧ ֧ߧ ڧ, ܧѧاէ ԧ ݧѧҧѧڧ ӧէ ֧ڧӧѧߧڧ, ܧѧ ߧ ѧէڧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ, ѧ ߧ ѧէڧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ.

ާ ԧ, ӧѧ ֧ڧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ ݧѧҧѧڧ. ݧѧҧѧڧ էݧاߧ ҧ ֧ڧڧڧӧѧߧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ѧߧէѧ ܧѧ֧ӧ IOS 17025. ѧӧڧܧ ߧѧڧ ӧѧ ҧ٧ѧߧ ӧէڧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ܧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ ݧѧҧѧڧ, ѧܧܧ֧էڧӧѧߧߧ .

ѧԡ72


ߧا֧ӧ ݧէ֧ ӧ֧ާ ާڧ էӧݧӧڧ֧ ܧѧ էܧ ѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ ӧ֧էܧڧ էܧ ֧է ߧѧڧ ֧ѧߧѧ. ٧ѧҧڧ ݧӧڧ է֧اѧߧڧ اڧӧߧ ߧ ֧ާѧ, ѧӧݧڧ ߧѧ էܧ, էߧڧѧ֧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ҧݧѧԧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ֧ ާާѧߧߧ ڧӧߧӧէӧ (Compassion in World Farming, CIWF). CIWF ѧҧѧ֧ ܧߧ֧ۧڧާ ֧ӧ֧ۧܧڧާ ѧӧڧܧѧާ էܧ, էէ֧اڧӧѧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ, ҧӧڧ ݧ֧ߧڧ է֧اѧߧڧ اڧӧߧ.

ѧԡ73


C ܧߧ էѧӧ֧ էܧ ڧѧߧڧ ڧ ݧ, ާ ߧѧ ܧާѧߧڧ, ܧѧ ڧӧ ߧѧ ѧӧڧܧ, ѧӧ ֧ӧ ڧѧݧԧ, ӧާ֧ߧ ԧѧާާ, ܧӧէڧާ ߧէ էڧܧ ڧէ.

֧ӧ ڧѧݧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧ ֧ߧӧ էܧާ֧ߧ, ܧѧѧڧ ܧݧԧڧ֧ܧ, ڧѧݧߧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ݧ֧ӧԧ ѧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ѧ٧ѧҧѧߧ ѧߧէѧ, ާڧߧڧާڧ٧ڧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ߧ֧ԧѧڧӧߧ ݧ֧էӧڧ ݧӧ ݧ֧ӧ.

ԧէ էܧާ֧ߧ ҧէ ܧߧѧ֧ݧߧ էѧҧѧߧ, ѧߧէѧ էݧاߧ ҧէ ҧݧէѧ ӧ֧ާ ߧѧڧާ ѧӧڧܧѧާ ݧ.

ѧԡ74


ڧѧ, էߧ ڧ ܧߧ֧ۧڧ ѧӧڧܧ է֧ӧ֧ڧߧ, ֧ߧ ѧҧѧ֧ ߧ֧ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ֧ ݧߧ ڧ֧ܧڧ ֧. ֧ݧ ֧ܧ C ܧݧԧڧߧ ݧ֧ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ڧڧܧѧڧ ݧ֧ߧ ާѧڧӧ.

ާ֧ էԧڧާ ѧߧ֧ѧާ, ѧܧڧާ, ܧѧ ߧ էڧܧ ڧէ ڧѧ, ڧѧۧܧѧ ܧѧէ֧ާڧ ݧ֧ߧԧ ٧ۧӧ, ӧ֧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ֧ѧާ, ӧէڧ ڧѧݧߧ ҧѧڧ ԧѧާާ , ܧ ѧӧӧѧݧ ا ҧݧ֧ 1400 ֧ݧӧ֧.

ѧҧ C ѧ ֧ܧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ ݧѧէ ֧ڧڧڧӧѧߧߧ ݧ֧ ߧ 1 ާݧ. ԧ֧ܧѧ 2011 ԧէ.

ѧԡ75


ӧݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧߧڧ֧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ, ҧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ڧէߧ ߧ֧ԧڧ, ֧ڧݧѧ ߧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧߧӧ֧ڧڧ ѧߧӧܧ ԧѧݧӧѧߧڧ֧ܧڧ (ݧߧ֧ߧ) ѧߧ֧ݧ֧ ߧ ӧڧ ֧էڧڧ ӧާ ѧߧѧ ӧ.

֧ԧէߧ է֧ӧ ާѧԧѧ٧ڧߧ էڧڧҧܧڧ ֧ߧ ߧѧ֧ߧ ݧߧ֧ߧާ ҧѧѧ֧ާ. ҧէ֧ ԧէ ڧݧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧ է 150. ݧߧ֧ߧ ҧѧѧ֧ ҧէ էѧӧѧ ܧݧ 10% ֧ҧ֧ާԧ ݧ֧ܧڧ֧ӧ.

ѧԡ76


2005 ԧէ ڧѧݧߧ ڧߧڧڧѧڧӧ ӧާ֧ էӧާ ӧڧާ ѧӧڧܧѧާ ߧէڧ, ѧէاѧѧߧ, ٧ѧڧݧ ֧ܧ ܧߧ֧ӧѧڧ ӧէ.

ѧ ֧ܧ ҧݧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ۧܧ ҧѧ֧ۧߧ է֧֧ӧߧ, ѧݧا֧ߧߧ ӧܧ ֧էڧڧ-ѧӧڧܧ. ӧ֧ާ ֧٧ߧ էاէ֧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ֧ۧߧ ҧڧѧ֧ էاէ֧ӧѧ ӧէ, ѧߧڧ ѧ ӧ ӧ֧ާ ڧ اѧܧڧ ֧ڧէ. է ӧڧݧѧ ѧ, ԧէ ֧ ߧ ҧݧ ѧߧ. ٧ӧݧ֧ ֧էӧѧڧ ߧڧا֧ߧڧ ӧߧ ԧߧӧ ӧ, ԧݧѧӧߧ, ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ ӧէ ާ֧ߧ اڧ֧ݧ֧.

ѧԡ77


ާ֧ ڧާѧާ Preem, H&M Volvo Logistics, ڧߧڧާѧ֧ ѧڧ ֧ܧ էէ֧اܧ ڧ٧ӧէڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧߧߧ ݧ, ҧӧ ֧֧է ڧܧѧ֧ާԧ ݧڧӧ ߧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧߧ ҧݧ֧ ܧݧԧڧߧ ӧڧէ ݧڧӧ. ݧѧԧէѧ ާ էߧڧ֧ӧ ݧ֧ 2009 ԧէ ӧ֧ڧ ܧݧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ٧ѧѧӧߧ ѧߧڧ Preem. ݧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ ѧ ާاߧ ٧ѧѧӧڧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧߧ ݧڧӧ ڧ30, ֧ ڧ ާ֧, ܧ 30% ѧӧԧ ާѧݧ.